COP 21 finished on December 12th with the Paris International Agreement. It is an international not-binding agreement, which will enter into force from 2020 if ratified by 55 Countries producing at least the 55% of greenhouse gases.
The agreement represents a historical moment. In fact, even though the distrust in the conference was widespread, the debates took place day and night coming to an unforeseen political compromise.
The agreement’s objectives are several. First of all, the limit temperature rise shall be 1.5°C, with a maximum of 2°C. It is recognized to the Parts the responsibility of implementing national plans of action, which is particularly important due to the fact that the climate change phenomenon has different impact on different communities, and consequently need to be treated using a local-based approach. The plans should be review every 5 years, but an international body to verifying their validity and results has not been set up.
Moreover, the “Loss and Damage” question, which refers to adaptation and climate mitigation in the most vulnerable countries, is included in article 8, and improves the already established L&D Warsaw Mechanism. Nonetheless, it will not be possible to use it in order to ask for a financial compensation to industrialized countries, which are considered to be the main responsible ones of climate change.
Considering the financing aspect, 100 billions are expected to be invested by developed states for the implementation of environmental policies, which is a number way higher than what has been invested till now.
Finally, the Paris Agreement undoubtedly came to an admirable result, but the discourse on its implementation still is open. Remarkable investments on green energy and renewable resources will be needed, together with a significant decrease in fossil fuels use. Above all, time will have a key-role: being fast in implementing these policies is inescapable.
To conclude, the consumer society’s style of living has to be revised, in order to draw a new path for safeguarding the future, or the mere existence, of the coming generations.